Dr Chris McMillan

Advance Queensland Industry Researc

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
Faculty of Science
c.mcmillan1@uq.edu.au
+61 7 336 59769

Overview

Dr Chris McMillan is a virologist who researches novel vaccine designs and delivery for viruses, including Polio, seasonal influenza, flaviviruses such as Dengue virus, as well as novel and emerging viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and highly-pathogenic avian influenza.

His work uses a range of vaccine modalities, including recombinant proteins, virus-like particles, and more recently nucleic acid vaccines (DNA and mRNA).

To maximise vaccine efficacy, his research explores delivery of these vaccines using a high-density microarray patch delivery platform, which results in targeted vaccine delivery to the immune-rich layers of the skin. Recent work involves delivery of nucleic acid vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza via the microarray patch system to create a potent, agile vaccine platform system to aid in Australia’s preparedness for future pandemics.

He was awarded an Advance Queensland Industry Research Fellowship in 2021.

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Queensland
  • Bachelor of Science (Honours Class 1), The University of Queensland
  • Bachelor of Science, The University of Queensland

Publications

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Wijesundara, Danushka K., Choo, Jovin J. Y., Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, Fernando, Germain J. P., Khromykh, Alexander A., Watterson, Daniel, Young, Paul R. and Muller, David A. (2024). Enhancement of cellular immunity following needle-free vaccination of mice with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Journal of General Virology, 105 (1), 1-6. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001947

  • Wijesundara, Danushka K., Yeow, Arthur, McMillan, Christopher L.D., Choo, Jovin J.Y., Todorovic, Aleksandra, Mekonnen, Zelalem A., Masavuli, Makutiro G., Young, Paul R., Gowans, Eric J., Grubor-Bauk, Branka and Muller, David A. (2023). Superior efficacy of a skin-applied microprojection device for delivering a novel Zika DNA vaccine. Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids, 34 102056, 102056. doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2023.102056

  • Choo, Jovin J. Y., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Young, Paul R. and Muller, David A. (2023). Microarray patches: scratching the surface of vaccine delivery. Expert Review of Vaccines, 22 (1), 937-955. doi: 10.1080/14760584.2023.2270598

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Grants

View all Grants

Publications

Journal Article

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Wijesundara, Danushka K., Choo, Jovin J. Y., Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, Fernando, Germain J. P., Khromykh, Alexander A., Watterson, Daniel, Young, Paul R. and Muller, David A. (2024). Enhancement of cellular immunity following needle-free vaccination of mice with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Journal of General Virology, 105 (1), 1-6. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001947

  • Wijesundara, Danushka K., Yeow, Arthur, McMillan, Christopher L.D., Choo, Jovin J.Y., Todorovic, Aleksandra, Mekonnen, Zelalem A., Masavuli, Makutiro G., Young, Paul R., Gowans, Eric J., Grubor-Bauk, Branka and Muller, David A. (2023). Superior efficacy of a skin-applied microprojection device for delivering a novel Zika DNA vaccine. Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids, 34 102056, 102056. doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2023.102056

  • Choo, Jovin J. Y., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Young, Paul R. and Muller, David A. (2023). Microarray patches: scratching the surface of vaccine delivery. Expert Review of Vaccines, 22 (1), 937-955. doi: 10.1080/14760584.2023.2270598

  • Tong, Marcus ZW, Sng, Julian DJ, Carney, Meagan, Cooper, Lucy, Brown, Samuel, Lineburg, Katie E, Chew, Keng Yih, Collins, Neve, Ignacio, Kirsten, Airey, Megan, Burr, Lucy, Joyce, Briony A, Jayasinghe, Dhilshan, McMillan, Christopher LD, Muller, David A, Adhikari, Anurag, Gallo, Linda A, Dorey, Emily S, Barrett, Helen L, Gras, Stephanie, Smith, Corey, Good‐Jacobson, Kim and Short, Kirsty R (2023). Elevated BMI reduces the humoral response to SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Clinical & Translational Immunology, 12 (12) e1476, e1476. doi: 10.1002/cti2.1476

  • Albornoz, Eduardo A., Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, Parker, Sandra, Li, Xaria X., Wijesundara, Danushka K., Aguado, Julio, Zamora, Adriana Pliego, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Liang, Benjamin, Peng, Nias Y. G., Sng, Julian D. J., Saima, Fatema Tuj, Fung, Jenny N., Lee, John D., Paramitha, Devina, Parry, Rhys, Avumegah, Michael S., Isaacs, Ariel, Lo, Martin W., Miranda-Chacon, Zaray, Bradshaw, Daniella, Salinas-Rebolledo, Constanza, Rajapakse, Niwanthi W., Wolvetang, Ernst J., Munro, Trent P., Rojas-Fernandez, Alejandro, Young, Paul R., Stacey, Katryn J. ... Woodruff, Trent M. (2023). SARS-CoV-2 drives NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human microglia through spike protein. Molecular Psychiatry, 28 (7), 2878-2893. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01831-0

  • Morgan, Mahali S., Yan, Kexin, Le, Thuy T., Johnston, Ryan A., Amarilla, Alberto A., Muller, David A., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Modhiran, Naphak, Watterson, Daniel, Potter, James R., Sng, Julian D. J., Lor, Mary, Paramitha, Devina, Isaacs, Ariel, Khromykh, Alexander A., Hall, Roy A., Suhrbier, Andreas, Rawle, Daniel J. and Hobson-Peters, Jody (2022). Monoclonal antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein suitable for multiple applications for current variants of concern. Viruses, 15 (1) 139, 1-18. doi: 10.3390/v15010139

  • Young, Andrew, Isaacs, Ariel, Scott, Connor A. P., Modhiran, Naphak, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Cheung, Stacey T. M., Barr, Jennifer, Marsh, Glenn, Thakur, Nazia, Bailey, Dalan, Li, Kenneth S. M., Luk, Hayes K. H., Kok, Kin-Hang, Lau, Susanna K. P., Woo, Patrick C. Y., Furuyama, Wakako, Marzi, Andrea, Young, Paul R., Chappell, Keith J. and Watterson, Daniel (2022). A platform technology for generating subunit vaccines against diverse viral pathogens. Frontiers in Immunology, 13 963023, 1-16. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.963023

  • McMillan, Christopher L.D., Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, Choo, Jovin J.Y., Azuar, Armira, Honeyman, Kate E., Khromykh, Alexander A., Young, Paul R., Watterson, Daniel and Muller, David A. (2022). Skin-patch delivered subunit vaccine induces broadly neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Vaccine, 40 (34), 4929-4932. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.07.013

  • Isaacs, Ariel, Amarilla, Alberto A., Aguado, Julio, Modhiran, Naphak, Albornoz, Eduardo A., Baradar, Alireza A., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Choo, Jovin J. Y., Idris, Adi, Supramaniam, Aroon, McMillan, Nigel A. J., Muller, David A., Young, Paul R., Woodruff, Trent M., Wolvetang, Ernst J., Chappell, Keith J. and Watterson, Daniel (2022). Nucleocapsid specific diagnostics for the detection of divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. Frontiers in Immunology, 13 926262, 926262. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.926262

  • Oliveira, Camille F. de, Neto, Walter F. F., Silva, Carla P. da, Ribeiro, Ana Claudia S., Martins, Lívia C., Sousa, Alana W. de, Freitas, Maria N. O., Chiang, Jannifer O., Silva, Franko A., Santos, Eder B. dos, Medeiros, Daniele B. A., Pinheiro, Gleiciane S., Brandão, Gleiciane F., Carvalho, Valéria L., Azevedo, Raimunda S. S., Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Costa, Igor B., Costa, Iran B., Santos, Mirleide C. dos, Soares, Luana S., Bedran, Rayssa L. S., Ferreira, James L., Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Freney, Morgan E., Muller, David A., Watterson, Daniel, Casseb, Lívia M. N. and Henriques, Daniele F. (2022). Absence of anti-RBD antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 infected or naive individuals prior to vaccination with CoronaVac leads to short protection of only four months duration. Vaccines, 10 (5) 690. doi: 10.3390/vaccines10050690

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Azuar, Armira, Choo, Jovin J. Y., Modhiran, Naphak, Amarilla, Alberto A., Isaacs, Ariel, Honeyman, Kate E., Cheung, Stacey T. M., Liang, Benjamin, Wurm, Maria J., Pino, Paco, Kint, Joeri, Fernando, Germain J. P., Landsberg, Michael J., Khromykh, Alexander A., Hobson-Peters, Jody, Watterson, Daniel, Young, Paul R. and Muller, David A. (2022). Dermal delivery of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine induces immunogenicity against variants of concern. Vaccines, 10 (4) 578, 578. doi: 10.3390/vaccines10040578

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Cheung, Stacey T. M., Modhiran, Naphak, Barnes, James, Amarilla, Alberto A., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle, Lee, Leo Yi Yang, Guilfoyle, Kate, van Amerongen, Geert, Stittelaar, Koert, Jakob, Virginie, Lebas, Celia, Reading, Patrick, Short, Kirsty R., Young, Paul R., Watterson, Daniel and Chappell, Keith J. (2022). Author Correction: Development of molecular clamp stabilized hemagglutinin vaccines for Influenza A viruses. npj Vaccines, 7 (1) 3, 3. doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00428-y

  • Choo, Jovin J. Y., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Fernando, Germain J. P., Hall, Roy A., Young, Paul R., Hobson-Peters, Jody and Muller, David A. (2021). Developing a stabilizing formulation of a live chimeric dengue virus vaccine dry coated on a high-density microarray patch. Vaccines, 9 (11) 1301. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9111301

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Cheung, Stacey T. M., Modhiran, Naphak, Barnes, James, Amarilla, Alberto A., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle, Lee, Leo Yi Yang, Guilfoyle, Kate, van Amerongen, Geert, Stittelaar, Koert, Jakob, Virginie, Lebas, Celia, Reading, Patrick, Short, Kirsty R., Young, Paul R., Watterson, Daniel and Chappell, Keith J. (2021). Development of molecular clamp stabilized hemagglutinin vaccines for Influenza A viruses. npj Vaccines, 6 (1) 135, 135. doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00395-4

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Choo, Jovin J. Y., Idris, Adi, Supramaniam, Aroon, Modhiran, Naphak, Amarilla, Alberto A., Isaacs, Ariel, Cheung, Stacey T. M., Liang, Benjamin, Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle, Azuar, Armira, Acharya, Dhruba, Kelly, Gabrielle, Fernando, Germain J. P., Landsberg, Michael J., Khromykh, Alexander A., Watterson, Daniel, Young, Paul R., McMillan, Nigel A. J. and Muller, David A. (2021). Complete protection by a single-dose skin patch–delivered SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine. Science Advances, 7 (44) eabj8065, eabj8065. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abj8065

  • Amarilla, Alberto A., Sng, Julian D. J., Parry, Rhys, Deerain, Joshua M., Potter, James R., Setoh, Yin Xiang, Rawle, Daniel J., Le, Thuy T., Modhiran, Naphak, Wang, Xiaohui, Peng, Nias Y. G., Torres, Francisco J., Pyke, Alyssa, Harrison, Jessica J., Freney, Morgan E., Liang, Benjamin, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Cheung, Stacey T. M., Guevara, Darwin J Da Costa, Hardy, Joshua M., Bettington, Mark, Muller, David A., Coulibaly, Fasséli, Moore, Frederick, Hall, Roy A., Young, Paul R., Mackenzie, Jason M., Hobson-Peters, Jody, Suhrbier, Andreas ... Khromykh, Alexander A. (2021). A versatile reverse genetics platform for SARS-CoV-2 and other positive-strand RNA viruses. Nature Communications, 12 (1) 3431, 3431. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23779-5

  • Choo, Jovin J. Y., Vet, Laura J., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Harrison, Jessica J., Scott, Connor A. P., Depelsenaire, Alexandra C. I., Fernando, Germain J. P., Watterson, Daniel, Hall, Roy A., Young, Paul R., Hobson-Peters, Jody and Muller, David A. (2021). A chimeric dengue virus vaccine candidate delivered by high density microarray patches protects against infection in mice. npj Vaccines, 6 (1) 66, 66. doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00328-1

  • Watterson, Daniel, Wijesundara, Danushka K., Modhiran, Naphak, Mordant, Francesca L., Li, Zheyi, Avumegah, Michael S., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Lackenby, Julia, Guilfoyle, Kate, van Amerongen, Geert, Stittelaar, Koert, Cheung, Stacey T. M., Bibby, Summa, Daleris, Mallory, Hoger, Kym, Gillard, Marianne, Radunz, Eve, Jones, Martina L., Hughes, Karen, Hughes, Ben, Goh, Justin, Edwards, David, Scoble, Judith, Pearce, Lesley, Kowalczyk, Lukasz, Phan, Tram, La, Mylinh, Lu, Louis, Pham, Tam ... Chappell, Keith J. (2021). Preclinical development of a molecular clamp-stabilised subunit vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Clinical & Translational Immunology, 10 (4) e1269, e1269. doi: 10.1002/cti2.1269

  • Amarilla, Alberto A., Modhiran, Naphak, Setoh, Yin Xiang, Peng, Nias Y. G., Sng, Julian D. J., Liang, Benjamin, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Freney, Morgan E, Cheung, Stacey T. M., Chappell, Keith J., Khromykh, Alexander A., Young, Paul R. and Watterson, Daniel (2021). An optimized high-throughput immuno-plaque assay for SARS-CoV-2. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12 625136, 625136. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.625136

  • Isaacs, Ariel, Li, Zheyi, Cheung, Stacey T. M., Wijesundara, Danushka K., McMillan, Christopher L. D., Modhiran, Naphak, Young, Paul R., Ranasinghe, Charani, Watterson, Daniel and Chappell, Keith J. (2021). Adjuvant selection for influenza and RSV prefusion subunit vaccines. Vaccines, 9 (2) 71, 1-14. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9020071

  • Idris, Adi, Davis, Alicia, Supramaniam, Aroon, Acharya, Dhruba, Kelly, Gabrielle, Tayyar, Yaman, West, Nic, Zhang, Ping, McMillan, Christopher L.D., Soemardy, Citradewi, Ray, Roslyn, O'Meally, Denis, Scott, Tristan A., McMillan, Nigel A.J. and Morris, Kevin V. (2021). A SARS-CoV-2 targeted siRNA-nanoparticle therapy for COVID-19. Molecular Therapy, 29 (7), 2219-2226. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.05.004

  • McMillan, Christopher L. D., Young, Paul R., Watterson, Daniel and Chappell, Keith J. (2021). The next generation of influenza vaccines: towards a universal solution. Vaccines, 9 (1) 26, 1-20. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9010026

  • Xi, Cecy R., Di Fazio, Arianna, Nadvi, Naveed Ahmed, Patel, Karishma, Xiang, Michelle Sui Wen, Zhang, Hui Emma, Deshpande, Chandrika, Low, Jason K K, Wang, Xiaonan Trixie, Chen, Yiqian, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Isaacs, Ariel, Osborne, Brenna, Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Júlia, McCaughan, Geoffrey W., Mackay, Joel P., Church, W Bret and Gorrell, Mark D. (2020). A novel purification procedure for active recombinant human DPP4 and the inability of DPP4 to bind SARS-CoV-2. Molecules , 25 (22) 5392, 1-16. doi: 10.3390/molecules25225392

  • Tan, Yuen P., Xue, Yongbo, Savchenko, Andrei I., Houston, Sevan D., Modhiran, Naphak, McMillan, Christopher L. D., Boyle, Glen M., Bernhardt, Paul V., Young, Paul R., Watterson, Daniel and Williams, Craig M. (2019). Basimarols A, B, and C, Highly Oxygenated Pimarane Diterpenoids from Basilicum polystachyon. Journal of Natural Products, 82 (10) acs.jnatprod.9b00522, 2828-2834. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00522

Other Outputs

Grants (Administered at UQ)